síhayaa

   [LovataSinhala.com]
heøayata uðaava genena ðeruva heøa!
nyaaya garuka, vyaakaraµaanukuulava þænuu, parigaµaka haa yoojaka miþuru síhala kramaya

síhala yunikood pramiþiya bihivunee keseeða?

paða bhaaviþaya gæna vacanayak

paøamuvenma mema lipiyee apa visin gannaa vacanavalin þeerum karannee monavaaða kiyaa vigraha kara ganimu:

  • mizra síhala kiyaa hæÐinvennee síhala haa sáskûþa mizra baasaavatayi. zaasþriiya lipivala æþi 'bara' vacana zabðakooxayen balaagaþa hæki sáskûþa paða vee. eyin uputaagaþ samaharak ðakuµee 'amaaru vacana...' yana piDuva gena yana pituvee æþa.
  • zabðavala salakuµu akuruyi. eevaa ee hætiyatamaþ, pili samagaþ, ekata bæÐii bæÐi-akuru lesaþ liyanavaa.
  • áka (sáskûþa: añka) yanna ígriisiyen digits = 0, 1, 2… 9) yana þeeruma saÐahaa gaþimu. sáskûþen iita vak hædayak, harakungee hávadu salakuµa haa numbers yana aruþ ðenavaa. samaharu evaata 'ilakkam' yana ðemaøa paðaya pavicci karanavaa.
  • sákhyaapaðaya gaµiþamaya pramaaµayaki. sákhyaapaða liyannee áka valin ya. sákhyaapaðayee ígriisi þeeruma numeral yannayi (uðaa: 250). akuruvalin paða liyanavaa, ákavalin sákhyaapaða liyanavaa kiyaa maþaka þabaa gaþa hækiyi.
  • lipi yannen aðahas kerennee liyana laða akuru yannayi. lipisákhyaa kiyannee lipi gaµanaavaki. ee ðekama sáskûþa vacana vee. ígriisiyen text yannen aðahas karanneþ lipisákhyaa yannama ya.

parigaµakaya þula hæma ðeyakma æþþee sákhyaapaða see ya. eevaayin minisungee prayoojanayata avazya ðee font ekak maargayen akuru, áka, salakuµu, hidæs yanaaðii see ðis kerenavaa. pasuþalayee æþi sákhyaapaða apata penena ðeyehi sákeeþa nisaa eevaata sákeeþapaða kiyaa nam kaøemu. yunikood sáyukþaayaþanaya visin eevaata kiyannee code points (sákeeþa sþhaana) kiyaayi. ee anuva ayannee sákeeþapaðaya 3461 ya. ee akuru yanaaðii salakunuvalata kiyannee characters kiyaayi. ee vacanaya samaharavita akuru aaðiya saÐahaaþ vena vitaka eevaayee sákhyaka sákeeþapaðavalataþ vyavahaara venavaa.

 igenaganna >>  bits, bayits -- monavaða mee? 

parigaµakayee mul piyavaraval

mulaðii parigaµakayee þibunee ígriisi akuruvalata niyama kala sákeeþapaða pamaµaki. 1980 gaµan valaðii samahara rataval þamangee bhaaxaavala æþi namuþ ígriisiyee næþi akuruþ eevaata ekaþukaragena Code Page kiyaa ðeziiya sákeeþapaða raaziyan saðaagena sitiyaha. anaþuruva, yuroopayee ISO aayaþanaya visin ígriisi æþuluva laþin akuren liyana sávarðhiþa rataval ðaahaþaraka akuru poðuvee gena ISO-8859-1 kiyaa sákeeþapaða pramiþiyak kaøaa.

ee samagama ISO-8859-2, ISO-8859-3 aaðii vazayen anikuþ bhaaxaa saÐahaaða pramiþi saðana laðii. esee kaøee ígriisi akuru saÐahaa upayoogi kaøa binðuvee sita 127 ðakvaa meþek kal ígriisi saÐahaa gaþ ASCII kiyaa niyama kara þibuµa sákeeþa eseema þibiyaðii ya. (ðekama æþuøuva) 128tee sita 159 þek æþi sákhyaapaða aøuþ viðhaana saÐahaa ven karana laðii. iþiri 160 sita 255 ðakvaa sákeeþa sþhaana an bhaaxaa saÐahaa ee ee ratavalata þamanta suðusu see ðeeziiya akuruvala hæda saÐahaa niyama kiriimata ðuni. iþin mee nisaa ekama sákeeþapaðaya bhaaxaa ðekaka laþin vunaþ venas akuru saÐahaa ðiima siðu vunaa.

ðeevanaagari akuru saÐahaa ISO-8859-12 yana pramiþiya kiriimata uþsaaha kalaþ inðiiyayangee ekaGaþvayak nomæþiva aþ‌harinnata siðuviya. heeþuvakata hoo aheeþuvakata ðemaøa, síhala aaðii bhaaxaaval saÐahaa pramiþi kerunee næþa.

ISO-8859 gaµayee pramiþiyanta æþulaþ vannee þani-bayit sákeeþapaða pamaµaki. mee þani-bayit pramiþivalata mul kaalavala Code Pages kiyaaða aða bahula vazayen Character sets kiyaaða bhaaviþa vee.

api kaøee síhala hoodiyee akuru siyalla ISO-8859-1 yayi ihaþa kivuu saákhika sákeeþavalata hoodi akuru niyama kiriimayi. vena vacanayekin kivvoþ, Rhys Davids kaøaa seema síhala yali laþingaþa kiriimayi. meþana api eevaa síhala næµakuru magin síhala akuru see penvanavaa. mee akuruvala pasuþalaya ee nisaa þani-bayit akuruyi (sákeeþayaka gaµiþamaya vatinaakama 256ta vadaa aduyi.)

mema veb adaviyee pitu mulaðii þænpaþ kaøee ISO-8859-1 sákeeþapaða samuuhaya maþa vuvaða, eevaa Windows-1252 see sákeeþavaþ kara æþiya kiyaa ðanvaa vena þænakata yævuvaþ venasak næþiva penuni. kesee vuvaþ aða UTF-8 see veb pitu sákeeþavaþ kariima vædi ðeneku visin sammaþaya lesa gannaa nisaa meevaa ee sákeeþavalata haravaa þænpaþ karaµa laðii. mee viðihata ekama akuru þun viðihakata þænpaþ kara ðis kiriimee hækiyaava mee akuru saÐahaa pamaµak vizeexa vuu lakxaµayak see hæGee.


laþin akuru saÐahaa parigaµaka varga siyallee ekaGaþ‌vaya

 anuka vacana >>  ígriisi laþin karaµaya haa kækstan uvaðura 

ígriisi bhaaxaavee vizexayen égalanþayee bhaaviþa vuna œ yana ðviþva svarayaþ, cek haa sloovak bhaaxaavalata aþyaavazya akuru haa noyek liviimeeðii an bhaaxaaval yoðaa ganna salakuµuþ ISO-8859-1 pramiþiyata ayaþ vunee næþa.

enamuþ, 1985hee ðii mayikrosoft samaagama visin Windows parigaµakavala yoðaa þibuna Code Page 1252 yana þani-bayit sákeeþapaða ræsata ihaþakii ðee æþulaþ‌va þibuni. ema pramiþiya Windows-1252 kiyaa nam kara IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) yana 'lova parigaµaka vælee sákhaapaða aaðeeza kiriimee aðhikaariyee' vaarþþaagaþa kara (registered) æþa. Windows parigaµakavala eyatama ANSI kiyaaþ kiyanavaa ðækagaþa hæka.

 igenaganna >>  ISO-8859-1 haa Windows-1252 kæræktar set ðeka 

lovee hæma akurakatama eekatama ayaþ sákeeþa paðayak

mee aþara amerikaavee parigaµaka karmaanþayee niyuþu samaagam kiipayak ekaþuvii pitarata bhaaxaa parigaµakagaþa karanna suðusu viðihak saamuuhikava pramiþivaþ kara ganna Unicode Consortium namin veøaÐa sáyukþaayaþanayak pihituvaa gaþþaa.

ovungee nigamanaya vuuvee looka bhaaxaa siyalleema ek ek akura saÐahaa vena venama sákeeþapaða ven kiriima parigaµaka karmaanþayee pragaþiyata hiþakara vee yannayi. vena viðihakin bæluvoþ, eka akurata ðun sákeeþapaðaya þavaþ akurakata yaliþ noðiya yuþuya yannayi. eyin læbena praþilaabhaya bhaaxaa mizrava livuu ðeyak yanþraanusaarayen ee ee bhaaxaa vala akuruvalin niþæþinma penviimee hækiyaava ya. yunikood síhala penennee (hoo síhala font næþi þæna nopenennee) ee nisaayi.

amerikaavee yunikood anugaamikayanuþ yuroopayee ISO aayaþanayaþ aþara kaøa sammanþraµayakin pasuva yunikood kramaya bhaara gæniimata ðepaarzvayama þiiraµa kaøaa.

lovee sæma akuravala aikhyaya 256ta vadaa iþaa aðhika vaga kiva manaa novee. meþek kal character sákeeþapaða saÐahaa eka bayit ekaka paaþraþvaya vana 255 sææhuni. namuþ aøuþin ðena sákeeþapaða 255 vadaa vædi sákhyaavan ya. þani bayit kramayata sþhaavaraþaavaya labaa ðennee parigaµakayee avama akhaµda ðeya bayit eka viima ya. aøuþ sammuþiyen pasu, sæma sákeeþa kramayakma þani-bayit kramayak lesa kiriimee sampraaðaaya avasan vuni.

eka yunikood sákeeþapaðayakata bayit ekakata vadaa ida pramaaµayak avazya viima nisaa parigaµaka zaasþrayata gætaøu raaziyakata muhuµa pææmata siðuvii æþa. mee þaþþvaya kisi ðinaka visaÐennee næþi vaga karmaanþaya aða pæmiµa æþi sþhaanaya ðesa balana vita praþyakxa vee.

 igenaganna >>  ISO, Unicode, ECMA, WB, IMF kiyannee?

saþyayee nopihiti aðahas siððhaanþa see gæniima

yunikood kramaya abhimaþaarþha ðekak uðesaa kaøaa yayi kiyaþi. in ekak sæma parigaµakayama lovee sæma akurakma ðuta hækivana Plain Text yana aðahasayi.

parigaµakayak þula noyek ðee parigaµya (Calculate) kerennee Main Memory yana viðuliya þibena þaak pavaþina viðyuþaya þalaya maþa ya. parigaµakayee yam akurak ðarzana puvaruvee penviimata praþhamayen ee akuree sákeeþapaðaya venuven ehi ruupaya penviimata kramayak þibiya yuþuya. ee kaaryyaya karannee Main Memory ekee font ekak þabaagena ya.

lookayee sææma akuraka sákeeþapaðayakama ruupaya gæb kaøa font ekak þabaaganna þaram ida pramaaµayak Main Memory ekee næþi vaga ðazakayakataþ vadaa kalak saðamin þibuu Arial font eka saðaagena yana aþaraþuree penii giyaa. aða samahara bhaaxaavala font næþnam ee venuvata penennee Glyph-Not-Defined yana salakuµayi. uðaaharaµayakata, Windows XP parigaµayaka yunikood síhala pihituvaagena næþnam penennee ema salakuµayi.

lookayata sarvasaaðhaaraµa font ekak ðenna bæri nisaa aða síhala yunikood font labaa ðennee lákaavee beðaa harina Windows, Macintosh parigaµakavala pamaµayi. (linaksvala apima font ðamaa gaþa yuþu vee). eeka hæma þænama síhala akuru ðækagaþa hækiya yanna mulin kiyaa kaøa nohæki þæna nizzabðava janayaa rævatiimaki.

kaataþ poðu akuruvalin liyana baasaaval ðænagannee keseeða?

yunikood kramayee anik vizexaþvaya ee ee bhaaxaaval yanþraanusarayen niþæþinma venvii þibiima yannayi.

namuþ akuru noþibuna ðakuµu aprikaanuvangee bhaaxaavaluþ inðuniisiyaa, jaa aaðii bhaaxaaþ laþin akuru yoðaagena æþa. griik, yuðev, þaayi, haa sirilik akxaravalin liyana noyek jaaþiin‌ða þama akuruvala hæda laþin akuruvalata haaþpasinma venas vuvaþ ema bhaaxaavala eka kramayak hoo laþin, enam þani-bayit, sákeeþapaða maþa paðanam karagena æþa.

ee vageema sææma batahira yuroopiiya basakma laþin akuruma bhaaviþa kalaþ ee ee laþin akura saÐahaa panavaa æþi zabða samaharavita ekinekata haaþpasinma venas ya. (uðaa: Jesus - jiisas, heesus; Geraldo - jeraldoo, heralðoo, Jean - jiin, zyó, Amarillo - æmariloo, amariyoo). laþin akurin livuu ðee ígriisiða, spaaççaða, prázaða kiyaa parigaµakayak apata ðanvannee kohomaða?

meevaa ðesa balana vita penii yannee lookayee hæma akurakatama venama sákeeþapaða pænaviima mahaGu maþayak see penunaþ saþya vazayen eya pussak vagayi.

kææli kææli ekata kara liyana naviina kramaya

inðiiya bhaxaa piøibaÐava yunikood aayaþanayata jçaanavanþa sahaayayak inðiyaven hoo lákaaven nolæbuna vaga æmarikaavee samahara parigaµaka zaasþrajçayan kiyaþi. yunikood síhala pramiþiya ðesa balana kenekuta meya manaava praþyakxa vee.

akuru soyamin eevaa ekaværa venas kiriima, paða hoo væki aakaaraaðiya piøivelata ðæmiima aaðii kriyaa yunikood inðiiya bhaaxaavakin livuu ðeyehi kaøa nohæka. iita heeþuva síhala væni bhaaxaa yunikood kramayata liyannee tayip‌rayitarayaka vagee kæælikæælivalin akuru saðamin nisaaya.

mee nisaa bhaxaavaþ liviimaþ aþara kisiyam sambanðhayak yunikood síhalavala nomæþa. 'ku', 'bu', 'ru', 'øu' yana akuru siyalla sæðii æþþee vyaçjanayak samaga 'u' svaraya yaa kiriimen ya. k+u=ku, b+u=bu, r+u=ru, ø+u=øu yana saþyaya yunikood síhalavala gæbva næþa. ee nisaama yunikood síhalen livuu ðee kolayaka livuu ðeyakata vadaa agee eya yali yaliþ muðraµa kaøa hæki nisaa pamaµayi.

ee ee akuru vargavalata eevaatama niyama penvana krama

laþin akuren liyannee eka akurak passee anika liviimenuyi. esee liyana ðeyak parigaµakayee penviimata font ekaka þæbiimata avazya vuuvee ee ee akuree sákeeþapaðayata aðaala hædaya pamaµayi. mææþak venakam vædi gaµanak font magin kerunee eya pamaµayi. (muðraµa zilpaya saÐahaama sæðuu ígriisi bæÐi akuru -- fi, ff, fl, ffi, ffl aaðiya -- gæb kaøa vizexa font þibunaþ ee bæÐi akuru ganna vizeexa viðhaana avazya viya.)

inðiiya bhaaxaa ígriisi vagee saralava akurak passee akurak liviya nohæka. ee nisaa ema akuru ðarzana phalakayee (moniter, computer screen) penviima vadaaþ sákiirµava kiriimata siðuvee.

síhala æþulu inðiiya bhaaxaa yunikood visin pramiþivan kaøee þani akuru gena eevaa udin, yatin, iðiriyen, pasupasin kææli ekaþu karakara liyana kramayak ya. bæÐi akuru sæðiimata þava vizexa prayooga avazya vee.

inðiiya gaµayee ek ek bhaaxaavak liyana viðiha ekinekata venas vee. mee nisaa, eevaa hariyaakaarava font ekakata liyana niiþi ek ek bhaaxaava saÐahaa venavenama yunikood sáyukþaayaþanaya visin pramiþivaþkara æþa. ee anuva font nipaðavana viðhi 2003nee paøakaøa Open Type pramiþiya penvaa ðii æþa.

font sæðiima nikamunta kaøa nohækiyi

ICTA aayaþanayee mahajana muðalin veeþana labana haþalihakataþ vadaa parigaµaka zaasþrajçayanta meþek kal síhala font ekakvaþ sæðiimata nohæki vuuvee ekkoo uðaasiina kama nisaa hoo lokkangee yahaøuvan hoo ðaruvan viima nisaa hoo sahaja aðakxaþaavaya nisaa hoo amaaru vædak nisaa þaman visinma liyaa gaþ niiþi valin ema kaaryaya þama vagakiimen as kaøa nisaa hoo viya hækiya.

kesee vuvaþ, loo parigaµaka vælee (jájaalayee) kaataþ kiyavaa igenagæniimata hækivana see 2003ðii prakaaza kaøa Open Type pramiþiya ICTA aayaþanaya visin dolar lakxa gaµanak væya kara zaasþrajçayek lákaavata genvaa ohu lavaa 2012 janavaariyeeðii Intercontinental hootalayeeðii ígriisiyen kiyaviimata sælæsviima apee mahaþ vimaþiyata heeþu vee.

iþaa asiiru Open Type font sæðiima saÐahaa alasayan no‌ena vaga mee oba kiyanava raøu haa asampuurµa font eka sæðuu mee liyannaa hoÐin ðanii.

yunikood pramiþi yali laþin gaþa kiriima

inðiiyayan nonavaþvaa yunikood 'visaÐuma' gæna þama aprasaaðaya paøakiriima nisaa 2008tee aga bhaagayeeðii yunikood aayaþanaya inðiiya yunikood laþingaþa kiriima (transliterate to Latin script hoo ketiyen transliteration) saÐahaa anva sækillak (programming pseudo code) paøakaøaa. in balaaporoþþu vannee, inðiiya bhaaxaavalataþ ígriisi væni laþingaþa bhaaxaavan bhukþi viÐina varaprasaaða labaa ðiima yayi hæGee.

yunikood aayaþanaya visin inðiiya bhaaxaa laþingaþa kiriimata ðii æþi vattooruva kiyannee ðænata yunikood visin kara æþi ema bhaaxaavalvala pramiþivalin patangena eevaa laþin gaþa kiriimee viðihak ya.

bhaaxaavakata aøuþ liyana kramayak sæðiya yuþu nam eya kaøa yuþu vannee væraðunu noµdi kramayakin patan gena nova, ema bhaaxaava liyana riiþi viðyaanukuulava soyaa bæliimen pasuva ya. piøigaþ vyaakaraµa poþ‌vala síhala liviima manaava þeerum kara æþa. paali haa sáskûþa saÐahaa PTS Pali, Harvard-Kyoto Transcription, IAST transcription mesee kramaaµukuulava haa manaava kaøa ðeyayi. 1800ya varxavala kaøa PTS haa IAST kramaval aðak saarþhakava pavaþinnee mee heeþuveni.

yunikood pramiþivaþ kaøa inðiiya akuru haa piøi elesama gena laþin akuru æþi þænata aaðeza kaøa nohæka. yunikood síhala akuru font þula haðana vizexa krama laþin akuru sákeeþapaða æþi þænee kramavaþkara nomæþa. ema krama eþanata æþulaþ kiriimaða kaøa nohæka. yamak laþin akuruvala (þani-bayit) sákeeþapaða maþata genaavoþ ee ðeya laþin akuru sæðiima saÐahaa ðii æþi niiþi anuva pamaµayi penviya hækkee.

oba mee kiyavana akuru laþin akuruvalata ven kaøa þænee ee akuru ðis kiriimata ðii æþi krama anuva penvanu læbee. namuþ ehi kisi aduvakvaþ penennata næþþee api hoodiya anuva síhala laþingaþa kara laþin akuru saÐahaa ðii æþi font krama upayoogi karagena mema font eka sæðuu nisaa ya.

basþiyá payí yannee?

parigaµaka kxeþrayee yam pramiþiyak sammaþa vannee ehi balapææmata lak vana siyallanma eya anuva yee nam pamaµi. yunikood síhala kramaya anuva ðeeval karana vita æyi apita ígriisi liyanavaata vadaa noyek upakrama yoðaa ganna siðuvannee? noyek viðihee muðraa phalaka (keyboards), vezexa liviimee krama (vijeeseekara, phonetic, sígliz, Google Transliteration), venama síhala lipi saaðhana anva (word processors) aaðiya aða bohoo ya.

1997þee sammaþa kaøa yunikood síhala pavaþvaagena yannee vizaala see pitaratata µaya viimen haa siya ðahas gaµan ðenaata veeþana geviimen ya.

aluþ yamak hariyaakaarava sþhira vanna kal gaþa venavaama ya. namuþ yunikood síhala pramiþiya aþyanþa vuu, kaataþ pahasu suðusu kramayak novena lakuµu bohoo ya. in praðhaanama karuµa eya ðiyuµu kiriima aaµduva maþa pavaraa gena janayaagee maþa yatapaþ karagena sitiimayi. anik maga hæriya nohæki ðeya pramiþiyata aaveenika ðoxayan ya. eevaa nisaa kisi ðinakaþ yunikood síhala sarvasaaðhaaraµa vannee næþa.

vihin mámuøaa vuu parigaµakagaþa síhala

aða bæluu bæluu þæna saamaanya janayaa parigaµakayee viðyuþaya paµividavala hoo samaacana adavivala síhala liyannee ígriisi akuren mahaþ uþsaahayakin ya. yunikood síhala sákeeþa pituvata avuruðu 15k vayas vunaþ, parigaµakavala yunikood síhala akuru mænavin penunaþ mesee viimata heeþuva pæhæðiøiva penee. enam eya bhaaviþayata iþaa apahasu kamayi.

epamaµak nova SLS1134 pramiþiya þava ðurataþ síhala liviimee riiþi soyaa nobalaa venas kara nirðeeza kiriima basataþ heøa hæðiyaavataþ karana avamaanayaki.

laþin akuru -- Latin Script

English Page

amaaru vacanavala þeerum

Singhala Pronunciation Guide

Valid HTML 5

Your use of this site is subject to the following: Copyright © 2007-2013 American Integrated Systems, All Rights Reserved. Trademark, document use and software licensing rules apply. Any part of the contents of this web site may have attached to them exclusions of using the methods of their creation, program algorithms, selling or offering them to sell by any entity other than their owners, among others, by virtue of patent rights covered by International Patent Cooperation Treaty. The use of fonts in particular is restricted for private use only. Please direct questions to American Smartfonts, 1165 111th St., Grand Prairie, TX 75050, USA.